2011-02-24

灰熊山谷:攀越熊峰

灰熊山谷:攀越熊峰
Grizzly Gulch: Bring Peak to Bear
礦洞、灰熊、湧泉,這一切都為盛極一時的山谷添上迷人色彩。
The story of Grizzly Gulch begins with Gold Mine, Grizzly Bears and Geysers.

188888日,追夢者和淘金熱都在這個美國西部山谷找到落腳點。這裡不只是淘金者的聚散地,還是一群野生灰熊的棲息地。

On August 8, 1888, dream chasers and gold rush have found their new resting place in this Wild West mountain gulch.

但經過年月的洗禮,淘金夢不再、曲终人散。空置的小鎮被湧泉佔據、荒廢的礦洞成了灰熊的新居所。大自然又再一次回復平靜。

As time passed, dreams were broken as nothing was worth to fancy in the gold mine. Abandon town was taken over by the geysers, and the empty mine became the home of Grizzly Bears. The nature has found its order, again.

大家將可再次踏上灰熊山谷極速礦車 (Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Car),重温舊時礦洞的景象。不過灰熊早已佔據並破壞一切。

礦車將由灰熊山採礦公司 (Big Grizzly Mountain Mining Company) 出發,沿著起伏不定的軌道,向礦洞進發。但這次旅程竟被一隻背癢的灰熊改寫。原本進入通道8 (Tunnel 8) 的礦車一下子駛進危險通道4 (Tunnel 4 – Danger) – 一條通往礦洞外的下坡道。幸運與不幸,或許真的只有一〝洞〞之差。

The journey starts from Big Grizzly Mountain Mining Company. You are welcome to board the Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Car and review the golden time. As you are heading to Tunnel 8, a back scratching bear accidentally changes the track and drove you to Tunnel 4 – a tunnel with a danger sign. In Chinese tradition, 8 means good luck, and 4 literally means “death”.

危險通道4的盡頭是接近灰熊山主峰的地方。可是,來到這裡再沒有向前行的軌道。當礦車上到山頂這段,蒸氣發動機將礦車拉動上山­。但當差­不多到山頂時,纜索因不勝負荷而斷裂。當你還未弄清事情的一切,礦車自己找道向前行的方法 – 全速往後退。

There is set of mechanical system powered by the steam engine to pull the mine car up to the mountain. While the min car is going up the mountain, the leather strap which pulls the mine cars up to the mountain is ruptured  When you are still trying to recap what just happened, the vehicle has found its own away out – going backward!
 
後行數百米後,礦車再一次停下來,但眼前的景象令你希望礦車仍在運行中 你正身處佈滿炸藥的火藥庫 (Powder Magazine)。你將看見一大一小的灰熊打算偷取放在庫內的魚獲。怎料,小熊打翻了油燈,火種迅速炸藥。爆炸的衝力令礦車極速向前衝。最後安全抵達車站。

After going backward at high speed for few hundred metres, the mine car stops at the Powder Magazine. And you are able to see a pair of bear is trying to steal the fish hanged in the magazine. However, the little bear breaks the oil lamp and lights the explosive. The blast shoots you out of the magazine at high speed and the journey ends when you arriving the platform safely.
 
灰熊山谷又豈止灰熊山一個景點!沿著小徑走,你會進入充滿西部狂野特色的小鎮灰熊山谷。鎮上各式各樣的商店林立,你可到酒館 (Saloon) 嘆一杯凍飲、或到小賣店 (Bear Necessities) 購買採礦工具、你亦可在噴泉山谷水樂園 (Geyser Gulch Water Play Area) 暢玩一番。

You could explore more as you visit the leaking town with huge geysers at Geyser Gulch Water Play Area, or enjoy cold refreshment at Saloon, or even acquire ‘mining supplies’ at Bear Necessities.
 
你會否對小賣店 Bear Necessities 這名稱感到有趣嗎?為何小賣店要改這麼怪的名字?其實應該是取自一首迪士尼經典名曲的諧音 《小泰山》 (Jungle Book)中的〝基本需要〞 (“The Bare Necessities”)。小賣店大概是山谷中販賣日常用品的地方,基本需要這名字也不錯!

Felt interesting with the merchandize stand’s name, Bear Necessities? The name should be inspired by a famous Disney classic song – Bare Necessities from Jungle Book. Yes! You could get the Wild West bare necessities at the Bear Necessities! It do make perfect sense! Hee-Ah!
 
園區介紹簡短得很,無他,本報著筆另一方面。相比山谷本身的故事有過之無不及 技術。

And that’s the end of story. Disappointed? The coming passages might fulfill your satisfaction.

每次跟友人說起山谷,總會談及礦車如何在後退時進入另一軌道。其實當你仍在山峰附近停時,礦車後已稍稍發生變化。首先,電腦將轉換路軌解鎖。其後由2個負責拉動及2個負責推動的氣壓式驅動器,分別將重2萬磅的轉換路軌反轉180度及將路軌減速以調整位置。最後再由電腦鎖上路軌。所需時間跟讀完上述3句相約,大概6秒左右。詳細大家可觀賞以下來自 Discovery Channel 的節錄,始終片段比文字更易明白。

Whenever I talk about Grizzly Gulch roller coaster with my friends, they always show great interest in how the train goes backward. It’s easy to understand why, because it’s Really, REally, REAlly REALly, REALLy, REALLY new to us! First, the computer unlocks the track. Then, 2 pulling and 2 pushing pneumatic actuators spin the 200,000 lbs track switch 180 degrees and reduce the speed to final position respectively. At last, the computer relocks the track again. The whole process finished in just 6 seconds! Below is a short clipping from the Discovery Channel, a demonstration of the track switching.
 
接著第二個話題是迪士尼山是如何建造。友人都對這十分有趣,特別是 Expedition Everest實在太神似。而且他們都看過 YouTube 的「香港迪士尼度假區擴建工程」的短片,並讚嘆其中一幕。

If you visited Hong Kong Disneyland Resort’s official channel, you might watch a clip called “香港迪士尼度假區擴建工程”. (Search the Chinese characters if you haven’t watched it before). It’s truly amazing to see how the Big Grizzly would look like. Also, we got a lot of hints from that clip as well.

以上截圖中的展品是在20101112日展出的。大概可見數種特別的東西。首先由看似鐵絲網的部份,即灰熊山的鋼架說起。

Above is a capture from the clip. It shows a piece of the mountain, and there is plenty to talk about. First, the “chips”.

跟其他設計程序一樣,首先在白紙上設計迪士尼山,然後製成陶模。經過數次塑型後,最後造出一個高數尺的模型。其後模型將透過鐳射掃輸入電腦,並在電腦製成 CAD (Computer –Aided Design) 模型。其後加上路軌、支柱、内部結構、線路等。幻想工程師就可透過從完成的CAD模型看到整個過山車的運作,包括過山車經過時灰熊 (Audio-Animatronics®) 的‘反應’等。

Like every design process, it starts with a sketching. Then the artists turned the mountain into clay model. After a few adjustments, they made a few-feet-tall model. Then the Imagineers used lazar scanner to turn it into a digitized model, and made a CAD (Computer –Aided Design) model. And they added details into the CAD model like, tracks, supporting structure, main structure, etc. The CAD model can predict every process accurately, including how Audio-Animatronics activates with the train.

有了科技的幫助,原本設計一座迪士尼山 (Disney Mountain) 所需的時間由34年減至18個月左右。由模型的 CAD 模型會利用數千個不同大小的三角形塑造出畸型怪狀的迪士尼山‘岩石表層’。幻想工程師把這方法稱為 Chip Method。然依據 CAD 模型製出很多很多不同形狀的6尺乘6尺迪士尼山鋼架,每個鋼架由3寸乘3寸的正方形組成。

In the tradition method, it usually takes 3 to 4 years to create a Disney Mountain. But with the help of technology, it only takes around 18 months. Then outside shape of the mountain will be divided into thousands of triangles, in order to give the basic rocky shape. The Imagineers call this the “Chip Method”. The 3D mountain rough face will turn into 6 feet square steel framework which formed by many 3 inches square and every framework has a unique position in the mountain. It’s just like a jigsaw puzzle!
 
灰熊山的鋼架放上主結構之前會加上突出來的鋼鐡支架,然後再跟主結構焊上。感到奇怪嗎?幻想工程師稱這為‘牙籤’(Toothpick)。原因是傳統建築棚架會阻擋幻想工程師的視線,而幻想工程師必需不時確保灰熊山的外觀雕塑符合要求。所以必需把所有垂直支架移除,並得出牙籤這方法。這些突出來的鋼鐡支架每支約5尺長,並會在上面加蓋工作平台,供噴水泥及雕刻之用。以森林河流之旅為例,為造出非洲火山岩,就己經得噴上6種不同的水泥及請來8名藝術家去塑造。

Before they put the steel frameworks into the right position, they added tab arms to provide the working platform. But why? Mainly because traditional scaffolding will block the view of the mountain, but Imagineer have to make sure the outer view of the mountain right in every perspective. They came up with an idea – Steel “Toothpicks”.

Every steel toothpick extended out 5 feet and provided a perfect platform for workers to put on the cement and artists to sculpture the mountain surface. Take Jungle River’s Cruise at Hong Kong Disneyland as an example, they used 6 different cement and hired 8 artists to create African volcanic rocks from the steel frameworks.

鋼架置好、噴上水泥後,要在水泥還未完全乾透時塑造灰熊山的初形。接著,神奇的魔法就得大派用場 錫紙。對,就是錫紙!因為錫紙易於塑形。當水泥還是濕的時候就要用力鋪上,其實是對水泥作簡單的塑形,並造出尖而亁脆的質感。然後再由雕刻家塑造出像真的外觀。

After frameworks were in place, cement were put on the surface, the Imagineer found a new way to create sharp, rocky surface – Aluminum Foil. First, they did some basic shape. Then, they press aluminum foil on to the surface when the cement is still wet. And then the artists sculpted the shaped cement with brushes and tools. 
 
下一步是對灰白色的山塡上色彩。當然,你絕不可能將整座山配上同一顔色,而且跟本不可能調出同一顔色。從擴建短片截圖可見,即使在同一區域,至少也有34種棕色。

After the cement was dried, it’s time to put some colour on the grey-white surface. It is hard to paint with the same brown colour, after all, it is hard to make the same brown. If you look back the capture from the official clip, you can see 3 to 4 different brown was painted within the same area.

最後將突出來的鋼鐡支架切除,鋪上水泥、塡上色彩。灰熊山的外觀就完成了。但…如果路軌跟灰熊山外觀安裝在同一結構,礦車高速穿越山谷所產生的震動便會對脆弱而必需固定灰熊山造影響!甚至會在外觀產生裂紋!於是路軌絕大部份路段是與灰熊山分開的。但在山峰附近的路段又如何?另設一個可震動的支架結構便可。假若主結構跟路軌結構共用同一空間又如何?各自至少必需保持6寸距離。

In the final process, they cut off the tab arms one by one, and redid the whole sculpting process. That’s how they made it. In order to protect the static sculpture, they built it on the rigid structure – the main structure. And they built the tracks in a different structure, a vibrating track structure. It is to understand why, because the coaster passes though the mountain in high speed and creates vibration which would cracks the outer skin. The 2 separated structures solved the problem. If the 2 structure somehow share the same spaced, 6 inches distance must be maintained.

那麽,灰熊山的地質又將會是如何?在「香港迪士尼度假區擴建工程」一片中可見,地質有點像明日世界的地面 像縱向土層的岩石地面。而山谷更會有類似鐘乳石的岩石及藴合豐富礦物質的溫泉。

So, what would the Grizzly Gulch floor looks like? We can see a part in the official clip, it somehow looks the Tomorrowland floor at Hong Kong Disneyland. Other than that, we can see hot springs and strange stones in this Wild West area.

D23 Expo及預覽中心播放的短片中可見,灰熊山谷的礦車與 Expedition Everest 的蒸氣火車外型無異,唯一分别是車頭印著 BGM,即 Big Grizzly Mountain。但為會採用同一款過山車?答案在其車輪及軌道。全因 Expedition Everest 的整個過山車系統是前所未見的。以下是節錄自負責Expedition Everest 項目、幻想工程部行政設計師及高級副主席 Joe Rohde 對整個系統的形容。

From the D23 Expo and the video playing in the preview centre, we can tell that there is no big different between the Expedition Everest’s Steam Trains and Grizzly Gulch’s Mine Cars. The only different would be the BGM, abbreviation of Big Grizzly Mountain, written on the front of mine cars. Why it has to be looked alike? The answer is hidden in the track and the wheels. The whole ride system has never been done before, not in the world of roller coaster. The man who in charge the Expedition Everest, the Executive Designer, Senior Vice President of Walt Disney Imagineering, Joe Rohde had make a comment on the system:
 
「整個故事令我們 (幻想工程部) 對軌道作出技術上的創新。我們需要改變及創造一種可轉換軌道及令過山車倒後的軌道系統。我們必需重新構思一款可倒後的過山車,而車輪必需能夠符合以上的設定。」

“The story drove us (WDI) to technical innovations in the ride track. We needed to innovate and create a track which that allows you to change tracks and go backward. We had to re-invent a train to allow us to go background cause the wheels were necessarily based on that premise.”

絕大部份的過山車車輪主要緊擊在軌道的上、下及內側。而 Expedition Everest 的車輪則採用過山車製造商 Vekoma 當時的最新技術,一種車輪擊在軌道的上、下及外側,從而提供更順暢的體驗。有趣的是,該技術過往只應用在小型過山車上,換言之,Expedition Everest 是引用該項技術的大型過山車。

For most of the coasters, the wheels were tight on the inside of the track. But Disney used Vekoma, a roller coaster manufacturer, latest track system at the time, which the wheels were on the outside of the track and provide a smoother ride. Expedition Everest is first large scale installation of such system.

或許你會對本報引用一大推 Expedition Everest 的影片截圖大感興趣,的確,它跟灰熊山谷十分類近,但卻存有頗大分別。因為最大分別不是在發展方向,而是遊樂設施本身。

You may wonder why the Gazette lavishly illustrated with Expedition Everest video caption. Yes, Expedition Everest and Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Car are alike, but having huge differences. BEAR in mind guys, it is not about the direction, but attraction itself.

其後,友人都說灰熊山谷極速礦車的系统跟 Expedition Everest 無異。不,其他迪士尼主題樂園素來也會重複使用同類系統;幽靈公館跟 The Little Mermaid: Ariel’s Under the Sea Adventures 同樣使用了 Omni-movers;奪寶奇兵®歷險旅程跟動物王國的 DISNOSAUR 同樣採用了 EMV(Enhanced Motion Vehicle)Grizzly River Run Kali River Rapids® 採用了 Intamin AG Rapid RideStormRider Pooh’s Hunny Hunt 均採用了隱藏的偵察式標示行走;Test Track Radiator Spring’s Car Ride 也使用了迪士尼專有的相類似(改良)技術,等等。令它們不同的正正是主題及敍述故事的方式。

Then, some of friends argue that the ride system is just the same. Well, if you look into other attractions in Disney parks all around the world. It is easy to list out brilliant attractions which share the same ride system with another amazing rides, like, Haunted Mansion and The Little Mermaid: Ariel’s Under the Sea Adventures (Omni-movers); Indiana Jones® Adventure and DISNOSAUR (EMV – Enhanced Motion Vehicle); Grizzly River Run and Kali River Rapids® (Intamin AG’s Rapid Ride); StormRider and Pooh’s Hunny Hunt (Disney’s Trackless Ride); Test Track and Radiator Spring’s Car Ride (Enhanced version of Test Track), etc. What differ them, which coincidently, is the theme.

不容置疑的是,Expedition Everest Yeti 比灰熊山谷的灰熊更為吸引。但這隻住在喜瑪拉亞山的神話生物亦成為 Expedition Everest 敗筆之處。

There is no doubt that the Yeti from the Expedition Everest is more attractive than Grizzly Bear from Hong Kong. But the Yeti, the mythical creature which brings life to the ride, becomes the biggest disappointment of the ride.

幻想工程師花上數月的時間到泥泊爾及中國作實地考察,聽取當地傳聞、畫草圖、記錄等。回到加州後,又特意請來生物學家研究其骨格和外型。目的是為了創造一隻前所未有的Audio-Animatronic®

Imagineers spent months to Himalayans area in Nepal and China for a field trip. They did sketching, recording data, photo taking, etc, in order to create the Expedition Everest, Serka Zong Village and the Abominable Snowman. After the trip, they invited biologist to study what would the Yeti looks like. The objective is simple and clear – to create a large scale Audio-Animatronic® that never been done before.

Yeti身高達25尺,而且可作上下18寸及左右5尺移動。跟其他 Audio-Animatronic® 最大的分別是,牠不是利用雙腳站立,而是透是支架支撐。牠的毛皮大約6,000磅並由數種不同的毛組成,其面積約有1,000平方尺之大。

Yeti tall 25 feet tall and he can move 18 inches up and down and 5 feet in and out. Unlike other Audio-Animatronics®, it is so big and doesn’t use the traditional way to support the movements, well I mean, it is actually holding a part of the vibrating structure instead standing on the ground. Its fur weight around 6,000 pounds which combined with different kind of fur and the coat is about 1,000 square feet.

為了令 Yeti 的動作流暢,幻想工程師安裝了一個可提供每寸3,000磅力量、並可在20秒充滿的液態驅動器。這道與747飛機動力更甚的力量,原本準備給賓客意想不到的驚嚇,但竟成為問題徵結所在。

The Imagineers installed a 3,000psi hydraulic thruster which could recharge in 20 second to make Yeti motion real. This feature generates a power even more than a 747 airline jet engine, somehow, that’s the problem.

Expedition Everest 開幕後不久,牠強大的力量令支撐其身驅的結構不勝負荷。而為免重達2萬磅的Yeti從賓客的頭頂掉下,於是幻想工程師利用閃燈代替其抓動效果。

After the ride is opened to the public, Imagineers had found out the supporting structure cannot take the strain. And the 20,000 pounds Yeti must not fall on the guests, they freeze the beast in the Himalaya hole. Soon, they used flashing light to replace the original grabbing effect.

而被困山內的 Yeti 亦由於過大而無法移走維修,因此一直被冰封4年半之久。而2011年的4月7日 Expedition Everest 正正是的5周年,諷刺嗎?

The Yeti is so big and cannot simply remove out and Animal Kingdom could lose the most thrilling attraction. So, it is trapped in the mountain for 4 and a half year. On the April 7, 2011, Expedition Everest will celebrate its 5th Anniversary, isn’t it ironic?

灰熊山谷雖沒有神話般的傳奇生物,但真實大小的灰熊可確保賓客全程感受到現場感。在擴建預覽中心中,展示其中一個場景的灰熊模型。這隻灰熊名叫 Back Scratching Bear

Even though there is no huge, grand mythical creature in Grizzly Gulch, guests can still fully experience the ride with the life-size Audio-Animatronics® bear. In the preview gallery, a bear was made into model – the Back Scratching Bear.
 
Back Scratching Bear 73,而且可作頭部向左右移動共30度、頸部向前45度、左右手肘會伸展達45度及身體上下移動9寸。牠身處月台上,身子稍向右傾,躺在指示牌上搔癢。牠搔癢時,身體會上下移動9寸及從垂直水平前後移動15度。而指示牌會隨牠的身驅移動而震動。

Back Scratching is 7 feet and 3 inches tall, and could tilt its head 30 degrees, move its head forward 45 degree, blend its left and right elbow 45 degrees and up and down for 9 inches. He is set on the platform, lay on the signal and its body is cheated to the right. When he scratches, he goes up and down for 9 inches and travels 15 degrees from the vertical. Also, the signal wobbles back and forth with the body movement.
 
牠的身體由玻璃纖維製造並蓋上一層毛皮,而動作則由充氣式驅動器驅動。而牠搔癢時會場景配合,令賓客走進危險通道4

Its body is made of fiberglass and covered with a piece of fur. And the movement will be generated by pneumatic thruster. The bear will coordinate with the scene, when it scratches, the track switches from Tunnel 8 to Tunnel 4, and the thrilling ride begins.
 
灰熊山谷雖不是什麼大作,但面對有限資源及資金,山谷的確是不失水準之作。至少,聽過其過山車系統及故事後,也會期待著到訪的遊樂設施。

With limited resource and budget, the plan has made a really good job. Let face it, no one could refuse to ride it after hearing about the ride system and story. At least, you have a great expectation on the New Frontier.
 
加上細緻如灰熊山的外觀、山上的小孔、湧泉、礦物溫泉、仿真木柱等裝飾。灰熊山谷,又會否是香港迪士尼樂園的代表作嗎?

Also, the detailed decorations like, the Big Grizzly Mountain, the sculpture on the mountain, geysers, hot springs and wood pillar (etc.) made the Wild West town more spectacular. Will the Grizzly Gulch be the new landmark of Hong Kong Disneyland?

或許有人會問:「誰會注意這麼細微的東西?」
華特迪士尼先生會說:「我會。」

Someone might wonder: “Who would care about the details?”
Walt Disney would say: “I will.”

最後,本報引用 The Imagineering Way 中的節錄去總結對灰熊山的看法。

「從框架外構思可找到各類的新發現及觀點,但有時 -當面對著緊迫的預算及時間- 從框架內構思也是值得去做的事。」

At last, the Gazette would like to give our opinion on the project with a quote from The Imagineering Way:

“Thinking outside the box can lead to all sorts of new discovery and perspectives, but sometimes – when faced with tight budget and schedules – thinking inside the box can be just as rewarding.”

你知道嗎?
Did you know that?

灰熊山有望成為第20座迪士尼山!
The Big Grizzly Mountain might possibly be the 20th Disney Mountain!

灰熊山谷的英文名稱原為 Grizzly Trail,而當時 Grizzly Gulch 則指西部小鎮一帶的位置。
Grizzly Gulch originally named as Grizzly Trail, and Grizzly Gulch was referring to the abandon town area.

灰熊山谷不算得上一座高山。但在強制性視線 (Forced Perspective) 的幫助下,主峰在遠處看起來會比實際高度高。其實前後的景物都是固定的,但透過前後景物的距離,可造成前景物較高或後景物較高的視覺上錯覺。後景物較高可以灰熊山谷為例,主峰與較低的主峰中間相隔一段狹小的空間,以突出主峰的高度。前景物較高的例子如,把玩偶放在鏡頭前拍照,造成玩偶比例較大的假象。本報自製了一段短片示範,由於製作簡單,請勿見怪。(留意米奇的眼睛!)

The Big Grizzly Mountain itself is not a tall mountain. But with the help of forced perspective, the peak might look taller in a distance. If you look into the photo, the front ground (the lower peak) and the back ground (the peak) separated with a narrow gap, this could help the back ground looks taller and create a slip slope. The Gazette filmed a home-made video to explain the concept. Well, the video might be a little shaky, but we do hope you enjoy it. (Focus on Mickey’s eyes!)

Vekoma 早於1977年與迪士尼合作,以下是曾經合作過的遊樂設施。

Actually, Vekoma is one of the old partners with Disney. Below is the list of the past co-works.

遊樂設施
Attractions
主題樂園
Parks
年份
Year
Space Mountain
Disneyland
1977
Big Thunder Mountain Railroad
Magic Kingdom
1980
Big Thunder Mountain Railroad
Disneyland Paris
1992
Gadget’s Co. Coaster
Disneyland
1993
Casey Jr. le Petit Train de Cirque
Disneyland Paris
1994
Space Mountain: Mission 2
Disneyland Paris
1995
Gadget’s Co. Coaster
Tokyo Disneyland
1996
The Barnstormer at Goofy’s Wiseacre Farms
Magic Kingdom
1996
Rock ‘n’ Roller Coaster Starring Aerosmith
Disney’s Hollywood Studio
1999
Space Mountain
Hong Kong Disneyland
2005
Expedition Everest
Disney’s Animal Kingdom
2006
Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Car
Hong Kong Disneyland
2012

Reference:
Disney A-Z: Disney Encyclopaedia
d23.disney.go.com
香港迪士尼度假區擴建工程 (Hong Kong Disneyland Resort Official YouTube Channel)
Building a Thrill Ride: Expedition Everest (Discovery Science Channel)
Expedition Everest: Journey to Sacred Lands (Discovery Travel Channel)
Ultimate Disney World (Disney Parks DVD)
Hong Kong Disneyland Expansion – 2010-2014 (YouTube Video)
vekoma.com
machinedesign.com
www.disneydispatch.com
www.ultimaterollercoaster.com

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